A Review of High-flying Efforts Made for the Improvement of Literacy Rate in Pakistan

By Ashiq Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim Khalid, Azhar Mumtaz Saadi and Moqddus Ayub.

Published by The International Journal of the Book

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Article: Electronic $US5.00

This study was conducted to appraise the illiteracy reduction programmes/plans that were implemented at different times to increase the literacy rate in Pakistan. To promote literacy in Pakistan first conscious attempt was made in Educational Policy 1972-80. Literacy and Mass Education Commission (LAMEC) was established in 1981 after the implementation of National Education Policy 1979. In 1989 LAMEC was renamed as National Education Training Commission (NETCOM). In 1995 NETCOM was given the name of Prime Minister Literacy Commission (PMLC). National Literacy Programme was a five years plan, which started working in 1995-96 but was stopped after one year. Later on this commission was changed to Education for All (EFA) which was renamed as Literacy Project Wing in 2004. Presently National Commission for Human Development (NCHD) is running the same programme. This study was designed with the main objectives such as; to appraise the illiteracy reduction plans introduced in Pakistan, know the ground realities regarding implementation of illiteracy reduction programs, and to provide the basis for further research in the area of illiteracy. Following were the source of data for this study: Educationists (Ph.D. degree holders), executives working at the top level management in policy formation, plan designing, project development and program development, executives working in national planning commission, provincial secretary, additional secretary, deputy secretary and EDOs (Education & literacy), literacy teachers, heads of different NGOs, community representatives and direct beneficiaries (the brick makers, manual workers, laborers, peasants etc). Snowball sampling technique was used to find the most relevant persons (respondents) for different illiteracy reduction programme in different areas for the conduct of this research study. Data collection was started from the person who had been involved for long in illiteracy eradication programmes, one program was evaluated at one time. On his identification the other respondent was chosen. The data were collected from 1348 respondents. Main findings of the study showed that need assessment was not carried out before launching illiteracy reduction programmes, objectives of the illiteracy reduction programmes were not relevant to the literacy needs of the participants, local community was not involved in the running the literacy centers, religious leaders, intellectuals & retired personnel, were not invited to support the illiteracy eradication programmes efforts, incentives were not provided to the participants for their outstanding achievements and participation and political instability in the country was a hurdle in the achievement of the targets of the illiteracy eradication programmes. A programme to improve the literacy rate in Pakistan was presented by the researchers as the main recommendation of this study.

Keywords: Literacy, Illiteracy Reduction Plan, Literacy Improvement, Literacy Rate in Pakistan

International Journal of the Book, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp.25-32. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 522.610KB).

Ashiq Hussain

Deputy District Education Officer, Department of Education, Government of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Mr. Ashiq Hussain is pursuing his PhD in Education. He did his B.A honour with Economics along with B.Ed. He has earned the degree of LLB from the University of Punjab Pakistan. He Earned his M.A in Urdu, Political Science and Education. The researcher has also done his M.Phil in Iqbal Studies. Now He is serving the nation as Dy. District Education Officer. He has served against different administrative posts like, AEO, Head teacher in High Schools and the District Coordinator for Allama Iqbal Open University Isdlamabad.

Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Khalid

Professor, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Khalid has been working as Chairman Department of Elementary Education, IER, University of the Punjab Lahore. At present he is working as professor of education in the Division of Education, University of Education Lahore. He has been author of a number of publications on core issues of education published by the Education Foundation, Islamabad. He is the chief editor of Taleem-i-Zaviye a well known education journal in educationists circle. He has worked for Journal of Elementary Education, Bulletin of Educational Research and other international journals of education.

Azhar Mumtaz Saadi

Vice Principal, Federal Directorate of Education, Islamabad, Pakistan

Mr. Azhar Mumtaz Saadi is B.Sc with major in Chemistry and Biology along with B.Ed. He earned his M.A in Islamic Studies from Islamia University, Bahawalpur. He also earned his Master in Education from the University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. He has been serving as a Secondary School Science Teacher in the public sector since 1985. In 2004 he won Indigenous 5000 PhD fellowship from Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. He submitted his PhD (Education) thesis at the Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan in May 2008. Presently he is working as the head of a Higher Secondary School in Islamabad under Federal Directorate of Education, Pakistan.

Moqddus Ayub

Teacher, Department of Education, Government of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Mrs. Moquadas Ayub is a teacher in public sector in Pakistan. She has done her master and also earned the degree of BEd. She is pursuing her PhD in education from the University of Education Lahore.

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