Causes of Low Literacy Rate in Pakistan: A Survey Based Study

By Ashiq Hussain and Naseer Ahmad Salfi.

Published by The International Journal of the Book

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Promotion of literacy in the shortest time span is a priority for Pakistan, where about half of the population is illiterate. The government of Pakistan has made tremendous efforts to improve literacy rate but these efforts could not break the problem. Literacy rate is still very low as compared to other regional countries. This study aims to identify the causes of low literacy rate in Pakistan. A mixed-method research design was used that includes: review of related literature, questionnaire and interview protocol. Data was collected from 15 policy makers and 40 district managers; 108 head teachers and 216 teachers of primary, elementary and secondary schools; 108 parents and 108 community representatives; 216 students and 200 illiterate people. Main findings of the study revealed a number of causes and factors that influenced the quality of literacy in the country. These causes include: inconsistency in national policies and lack of political will; poor planning and implementation; lack of coordination among agencies; lack of educational facilities and financial resources; a feudal system and socio-cultural problems.

Keywords: Literacy Improvement, Causes and Factors, Teaching Literacy, Illiteracy, Education Policy, Government of Pakistan

International Journal of the Book, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp.151-164. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 908.205KB).

Dr. Ashiq Hussain

Executive District Officer Literacy, District Government of Nankana Sahib, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Dr. Ashiq Hussain has been serving as Executive District Officer Literacy in District Nankana Sahib. Recently, he was awarded the degree of PhD in Education by the University of Education, Lahore. He has published five research papers in international and national reputed journals.

Dr. Naseer Ahmad Salfi

Head teacher, Department of Education, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Mr. Naseer Ahmad Salfi is pursuing his PhD in Education from the University of Education Lahore-Pakistan. He has earned his Master in Education from the University of Punjab with distinction. Presently, he is working as a headmaster in a Secondary School. He has published five research papers in international and national reputed journals.


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